Virtually all modern disk drives use SATA or PATA interfaces to connect to a system.
Of these interfaces, only ST-506/412 and ESDI are what you could call true disk-controller-to-drive interfaces, and they are obsolete.
Non-ATA versions of IDE were used primarily in the IBM PS/2 systems and are also obsolete.
Current SCSI, ATA, and SATA are system-level interfaces that usually internally incorporate a chipset-based controller interface.
For example, many SCSI, PATA, and SATA drives incorporate the same basic controller circuitry inside the actual drive.
Primary motivation for such a switch is to gain additional performance from disk I/O (SATA NCQ), especially for SSD hardware.
Also recommendations from this article are useful in dual-boot configurations, where other OS must use SATA controller in AHCI mode, and Windows XP as a first OS is using SATA controller in IDE mode. If you fail to change SATA controller mode in BIOS setup during this reboot, then Windows will fail to boot with BSo D (Blue Screen of Death).
Integrated Drive Electronics refers to the fact that the interface electronics or controller is built into the drive and is not a separate board, as it was with earlier drive interfaces.
Although the correct name for the particular IDE interface we most commonly use is technically ATA, many persist in using the IDE designation today.
Companies such as the Plus Development Division of Quantum took small 3 1/2-inch drives (either ST-506/412 or ESDI) and attached them directly to a standard controller card.
The drive/controller assembly then was plugged into an ISA bus slot as though it were a normal disk controller card.
Reliability is increased because the data encoding, from digital to analog, is performed directly on the drive in a tight noise-free environment.